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踢毽子的历史

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jlb2006 发表于 2011-10-17 20:51:49 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
  踢毽子是中国民间传统运动项目之一。根据史料记载和出土文物证明,它起源于中国汉代;唐宋时期开始盛行,在民间流传极广,集市上还出现了专门制作出售毽子的店铺;明代开始有了正式的踢毽比赛;清代达到鼎盛时期,在毽子的制作工艺和踢法技术上,都达到空前的程度。
  20世纪30年代后,踢毽运动曾一度衰落。新中国成立后,大力扶植发展中国这一传统运动项目。1950年,北京市吸收街头踢毽艺人参加杂技团,专设踢毽子节目,并出国进行表演,受到了国外观众的热烈欢迎;1956年,中国第一次正式的踢毽比赛在广州举行;1963年,踢毽子同跳绳等一起,被列入国家提倡开展的体育活动,并被编入了小学体育教材加以推广;1984年,国家体委正式将踢毽子列为全国比赛项目,并颁布了《毽球竞赛规则》,改称踢毽为“毽球”;1987年中国毽球协会成立,此后每年都举办全国毽球锦标赛、全国职工毽球赛、全国中学生毽球赛三大赛事;在1995年的全国民族运动会和1996年的全国农民运动会上,毽球也被列为比赛项目。目前,毽球运动已成为在全国普遍开展的热门项目。
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小3撸过了 发表于 2012-1-13 17:16:44 | 显示全部楼层
一起交流!对这个话题感兴趣的朋友们












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艾兮强 发表于 2012-2-28 10:56:39 | 显示全部楼层
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新辉 发表于 2012-3-31 11:45:13 | 显示全部楼层
靠,好贴都没人顶,这类顶可千古留名哪~~!
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小春梦想 发表于 2012-5-18 23:09:31 | 显示全部楼层
做个记号,下次好找!
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峰阿云 发表于 2012-7-10 22:07:03 | 显示全部楼层
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yc1292202548 发表于 2012-8-19 11:46:31 | 显示全部楼层
经验啊... 向楼主学习












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7321747oC 发表于 2012-8-31 20:35:10 | 显示全部楼层
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硅藻泥b 发表于 2012-9-8 09:13:00 | 显示全部楼层
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mspc81 发表于 2012-9-9 20:32:16 | 显示全部楼层
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晨析翱 发表于 2012-9-9 20:44:04 | 显示全部楼层
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焕幸峰 发表于 2012-9-19 02:53:46 | 显示全部楼层
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angelabr 发表于 2012-9-26 22:51:35 | 显示全部楼层
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uioesdeded 发表于 2012-9-29 02:23:11 | 显示全部楼层

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楚亮官 发表于 2012-10-7 21:15:30 | 显示全部楼层
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shfafsdk 发表于 2012-10-18 14:35:33 | 显示全部楼层

dolce gabbana Housing construction department pric

,  The current price  still does not have  complete rebound  condition  .  Housing construction department  responsible person  recently accepted the  media  interview  ,departmental door  ,each  region should  continue  not to move or retreat  to  the implementation of  the real estate market regulation  policy  ,resolutely curb speculative  investment house demand  ,reasonable  support  residents  occupied demand  .
At the same time  ,continue to  guide and supervise the  purchase of  city  strict implementation of  measures  to ensure the  property purchase restrictions  ,limiting the purchase of  measure and executive effect  .
The  responsible person also said  ,the relevant departments  to do a good job  to prevent  the rebound  policy  plan  .Accelerate the  property tax  pilot  city  to expand  scope of work  .The regulation of the real estate market  is still  critical view on the  current  property market overall  situation  ,the responsible person said  ,speculative  investment property  is suppressed obviously  ,prices basically  stable  ,the housing  stock  to keep basically stable  .
Prices for the  next step in the trend  ,the person in charge pointed out  ,from the recent  inspection  situation,  although many  city  increases  ,but  an increase in  general  is still  down  ,some  still is negative growth  ,did not  appear big range  of  prices  rebound phenomenon  .
But he expresses at the same time  ,from  the recent market performance  and its influence factors  ,real estate market stable  running some  unfavorable factors  ,the next phase of  the regulation of the real estate market  is still in a critical period  ,hollister,consolidate adjusting control achievement  task still  very arduous  .
  The central stressed the need to  not to move or retreat  to  implement the  policy of estate market adjusting control  ,consolidate adjusting control achievement  .All localities and departments  should adhere to the  regulatory policy not to  shake  ,not relax  ,resolutely  curb speculative  investment property  ,efforts to increase  housing supply general merchandise  .
  The responsible person said  ,with a large number of  affordable housing  in the  market is expected to  completed and put into use  ,further  stability  ,louboutin,prices  do not have a comprehensive  rally condition  .
Housing prices rose too fast  area  will be accountable to  the next step  ,departmental door  ,each  region will continue  not to move or retreat  to  the implementation of  the real estate market regulation  policy  ,resolutely curb speculative  investment house demand  ,reasonable  support  residents  occupied demand  ,promote  the steady and healthy development of  real estate  market  ,abercrombie.
The  responsible person stressed  ,must  not to move or retreat  to perform  well the existing  regulatory policy  ,consolidate adjusting control achievement  .To  guide and supervise the  purchase of  city  strict implementation of  measures  to ensure the  property purchase restrictions  ,limiting the purchase of  measure and executive effect  .
The timely to the  implementation of regulatory policy  ineffective  ,relax control  policy  ,causing  prices to rise quickly  in  accountability system  .To speed up the study and  improvement of the real estate market  regulation and control policies and measures  ,improve the real  estate market regulation  mechanism  .
At the same time  ,to  continue the implementation of  differential housing credit  ,tax policy  ,resolutely curb speculative  investment demand  .Accelerate the  property tax  pilot  city  to expand  scope of work  .
Relevant departments will also  continue to do a good job of  house price  ,land price monitoring  ,pay close attention to  housing volume  ,prices and other  key indicators of  new change  ,to  prevent  rebound  policy  plan  .
Real estate  tax or  expand the pilot  and gradually establish  the real estate  tax system in  the State Administration of taxation  policy  and regulations  division inspector  Cong Ming said recently  ,the next step  of property tax  will not only  expand the scope of the pilot  ,and  gradually establish  according to  assess the value of  collection of  real estate  tax system,  and  with its emphasis on  real  estate tax  differences  .
Accepting Chinese economy times to  interview experts  said  :  property tax  may in the future  will involve land  tax  incorporated therein  ,need to build  efficient  ,perfect  assessment  team  ,hollister pas cher,this is  a long-term  process of construction  .
  Related to  tax  or  property tax  that  incorporated  Cong Ming  ,www.christianelouboutinfrance.com,to distinguish between  property tax and  real estate tax  of two different concepts  .Property tax  is  levied  in accordance with the  original value  ,and the real estate  tax is  levied  according to the  evaluation  ,assessment of the value of  including in the  land  .
  Real estate tax  is a  tax  ,house  itself contains  estate  value  ,dolce gabbana.Real estate tax  is a  tax system  ,property tax  ,land use tax,  urban land use tax  are included  .According to the  assessment of the value of  property  as a commodity  is progress  ,have larger price  fluctuations  ,www.abercrombieeandfitchffrance.com,according to the value of  assessment of  taxes  is more  reasonable  .
Assessment in the past  is  planned economy  product  ,air jordan,the laws of the market  requirements of  tax revenue and market  to strengthen ties  .  Ten years  follow-up study on  the real estate tax  finance and taxation Dongbei University of Finance and Economics  professor  Li Jing  told the China economic times reporters  .
Cong Ming  also said  ,the next step will be to  work along both lines  ,including further  expanded property tax  pilot  and  gradually establish a real estate  tax system  ,  goal is to destroy the  property tax  ,real estate  tax    .
Central University of Finance and Economics of Finance  Taxation Research  Institute Professor Ceng Kanghua  told this reporter  analysis  ,the future may be  to  land tax,  land use tax  and house property tax  together  syndrome  .
The present  property tax  ,mainly on  the rental income and  the residual value of the property  expropriation  .Property tax and  real estate tax  on  changes  of little significance,  may be  pronounced  to avoid double taxation  of  real estate  and land  tax  in the  tax system  of the corresponding  adjustment  .
Similar taxes  foreign general  called    property tax    or    property tax    ,the latter  mainly on  real estate  tax  .In early  9  ,the State Administration of Taxation  on  property tax  pilot  expansion  around the  problem  clear  ,is  with the Ministry of finance  ,Ministry of housing and urban-rural construction  actively  to promote the study of  expanding  the scope of the pilot  reform of property tax  ,outlet hogan.
Cong Ming  said,  real estate  tax specific  deepen the  time  may be the end of the year  or early next year  .  As the  business tax reform  of value-added tax  to  local tax source  reduction,  property tax or  can be  a  supplement  .
This is not a single  tax reforms  ,and  relates to  the  local  tax system,  perfect,  and the  central and local  financial distribution  .The trend  is inevitable  ,but the process  is  lengthy  .  Ceng Kanghua says  .
The introduction of appropriate  social  institutions to assess  property taxes  levied  may become  more complex  ,and the  value  of  efficiency and fairness  ,and assessment  system construction  also concern  .
  Now housing  individual value difference  is very big,  more  complicated  ,louboutin pas cher Xi Jinping met with Defense Sec
troops to help stabilize the situation.King Hamad announced and implemented for two and a half months the national state of emergency.,it is difficult to  assess the  caliber of  unity  .  Ceng Kanghua said  ,the experience from abroad  ,generally taken  considering  past value  ,present value  ,area of  and other factors  ,which  are  valuable reference  value  than that of  the past  .
How to  evaluate  ,by whom  assessment  ,to ensure  fair and reasonable  ?At present,  the relevant functional departments of the  manpower  ,material resources  may  temporarily unable to  take on so much  work  .
Price fluctuation  is dynamic  ,it also  increased the difficulty  .Government departments,  or  may be appropriate to  introduce social  evaluation  mechanism  .Li Jing thinks  ,reform is not  only  to  improve  such  condition  ,should be in  the pilot  training environment  ,continuous learning advanced experience  ,training of qualified personnel  .
Some media  pointed out that  since January  ,louboutin pas cher,2011  ,Chongqing  ,Shanghai  launched a  property tax  pilot  ,is  to the existing property  tax  based  on the overall  expansion of  tax  ,real estate tax reform  system  limited contribution  .
  In accordance with international experience  ,due to  different local conditions  ,the specific  implementation details will be  developed  by the local  ,never  once  opened  ,will  have after having first  .
How to  levy  the benchmark price  is very important,  need  national  estimates,  combined with  local differences  can decide  the basic  exemption  or  exempt  area  .Because the property  itself does not provide  liquidity  ,hollister pas cher Shaanxi Province all admissions to invest
troops to help stabilize the situation.King Hamad announced and implemented for two and a half months the national state of emergency.,geographical  position  ,air jordan pas cher,caused by the differences of  influence  .
The need for statistical  refinement  ,the future  will be  in different regions  distinguish  relatively fine  ,air jordan.  Ceng Kanghua says  .The Institute of financial science  director Jia Kang  recently  talked about  real estate tax and  said  ,  reform  of the positive effect of  easily identified  ,now many  objections  are not  formed the basis,  whether  legal  obstacles  ,or  a barrier operation  ,do not exist  .
    Real estate  valuation  itself  is not particularly  difficult,  as long as there is  a good  support system,  the  assessment approach  for studying the permeability  ,technology  is no longer  difficult  .
The  first to  change train of thought  ,in the pilot  exploration  ,improve  ,perfect  .  Li Jing says  .  through the pilot  region effect  and feedback  ,and summarize the experience and lessons  of  adjustment  ,the ultimate goal is to  establish a fair  ,reasonable  ,efficiency  of the  real estate  tax system  .
No efficiency,  lack of  open  foundation  ,to  form a  smooth  implementation mechanism  .  Ceng Kanghua thinks  .(  China  economic times)  developers to get enthusiastic  experts said the  property warming  but far from  overheat  according to the voice of China    news late height    report  ,www.christianelouboutinfrance.com Beijing kindergarten by mo
troops to help stabilize the situation.King Hamad announced and implemented for two and a half months the national state of emergency.,this period of time  ,Hangzhou  ,Nanjing  ,Wuhan  ,Wenzhou and many other  city  intensive  increase land supply  quantity  ,at the same time  ,Vanke  ,real estate  and other large  developers to get  warm  start  rising,  one after another in Guangzhou  ,Hangzhou and other  big spenders  ,bought a lot to  ,abercrombie paris.
Data  shows  ,August,  Vanke  ,Longhu  ,sea  ,the  four large  enterprises  with the  total amount  is about 12000000000 yuan  ,annulus comparing rises 4.85%  .In September,  the major enterprises  are  not idle  ,Vanke  is first  to 1365000000 successful  competing in  Guangzhou Development Zone open  avenue to the  south of a  plot  ;soon  Huarun  land  to the total  price  1084000000 yuan  competing in  Chengdu  plots  ;bodied estate  with 400000000 yuan  price  transfer by agreement  to take over Guangzhou  project of Haizhu city  .
..  ...  Wang Xinran  graduated from the University  of Hangzhou  ,the real estate business  .Let  some of his concern  ,this  is it right?  Prices to  continue rising  signal  ?The king  gladly  :must  worry about rising prices,air jordan pas cher,  now  buy a house  for me,  is  a very  urgent problem  ,so I  will  wait  ,hogan.
Developers  move  what  will bring the real estate market  what kind of impact?  Ordinary people  ,is happy or sad  ?The analysis of experts  ,apparently  so that we can  be assured  .China  real estate data  Institute executive president  Bobby Chan to think,  this time the  land market and  the first half of the  ice  state is compared  ,it  begins to warm up  ,but not  to  overheat  .
Bobby Chan  :competition is  strengthening  ,such as  a piece of land  will  have more than a dozen  competition  .At the same time,  the Ministry of land and resources  requirements  ,premium  over 50%  will be  reporting  ,individual projects  have emerged  over 50%  or 70%  or  .
Compared to the previous  frequently  gains of 300%  ,now  has heat,  but  also  not overheated  .In particular the  first-tier cities  to inventory the  speed  is quite  fast  ,so  the developers,  but also  to certain  land reserve  ,maintain  long-term  operation  .
Cause  I  love  my  vice president  Hu Jinghui analysis  ,smart  real estate developers  now  have  to get hit,  to  sales in the first half  they  have  money,  and  now  with the  cheaper  ,the  economic  accounts  developers  considered  the most carefully  .
Hu Jinghui  :at present,  many  developers on the market  judgment than  at the beginning of this year  is better  ,because the beginning of this year  compared to pessimists  .Now,  since the  real estate market through  regulation  ,the overall situation  of cooling  ,in the  land market,  many developers  have been withdrawn from  .
Together with the  relevant departments  for  the price  intervention  ,for some  funds  and strong strength of the  developers to get  it  ,now  get  cheaper  .Ministry of land and resources released  data show  ,first half of the  residential land supply  for 47200 hectares  ,only  completed a full year  for the planning of housing  is less than 3  ,the  inspection team  also said that  the first half of this year  ,part of the city  of housing land  supply  plan completion rate  is low  ,the individual  city  less than 10%  ,so the  country  should accelerate  the completion of land  for the program  index  .
Also because of such  ,local governments are  from the beginning of August  focused  ,the Beijing-Shanghai  and other hot  city  even  launched  had been  reluctant to  take them out of the    the bottom    quality  plots  ,are also  in order to attract  developers  attention  .
In Hu Jinghui  ,each to the  second half of the year  this time,  are also the  developers on the  supplementary  inventory  time  ,does not belong to the  abnormal phenomenon  ,and  focused on the introduction of  the land  around  ,not only will not  let  prices rising  ,but  prices stabilizing  signals:  Hu Jinghui  :because  many  takes,  means that in the future  a year  to a year and a half  time  supply will  soon enough  ,this is a  stable price  signal  ,not a  price  signal  .
Guangzhou  Chen and  Yuan Lijia of Hangzhou  in the real estate business  to get  played very  calm  ,they  buy a house  that  time  does not change  .Mr. Chen  :I didn  think  to buy land  and  house prices  much  ,bought a lot to  might be  for the government to  much,  for the future  volume  a bit optimistic  .
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angelabr 发表于 2012-10-25 15:46:15 | 显示全部楼层
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德立磊 发表于 2012-11-6 09:20:29 | 显示全部楼层
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流口水的兔子 发表于 2013-1-1 02:45:52 | 显示全部楼层
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